It’s all very Scopetastic!

John Batten points out the magical power contained in the scope that could be helping you with diagnostic spells every day

By John Batten | Published:  02 April, 2018

It’s been an interesting few weeks here at Auto iQ HQ. After my last article discussing the merits of “growing over buying” technicians I received a few phone calls looking for my views on the most productive path to technical enlightenment.

Whilst I’m not sure that it’s possible to reach a Zen state in this industry (please let me know if you’ve attained this), it was great to discuss the various paths a technician has to choose from once they’ve decided to continue their technical advancement.

The available options are obviously specific to the individual. That being said my catch-all mantra is to always take the path least travelled. Why would I not advocate an easy path? Well, as with most things in life the route of least resistance may throw up the odd quick win, BUT it rarely delivers the long-term results that pay the kind of dividends we dream of and it’s with this in mind that I scribe this article.

Where’s the map?
Every technical adventure should start with a review of the map. Whilst our diagnostic process will make plain the waypoints on your route to the first time fix, there are many twists and turns along the way where our hero is forced to make a decision. The quality of these decisions will ultimately see their journey culminate in glory, or see them lost in the maze of misery that is misdiagnosis.

A little dramatic I know, but there’s nothing like a bit of emotion to brighten up what would otherwise be just another technical article. Back to the adventure…

If Harry Potter did diagnostics
With so much at risk, what are the critical choices our hero should make? Possibly the most important decision for a technician is to truly understand the relationship between Volts, Amps and Ohms. I’m not talking about the theoretical math that underpins Ohms law, not that it isn’t important. Just that it’s not as important as understanding the fundamental relationship between those values when it comes to using the tool that will quite frankly change a technician’s career forever.

What tool I here you cry? It’s a bit like the Elder Wand (apologies if your not a J.K. Rowling fan). Difficult to find the right one, not the easiest thing to use, but oh boy once you’ve had a bit of practice it’s possibly the most powerful diagnostic weapon in your arsenal. If you’ve not guessed it so far then you really need to get out more. I am of course proclaiming the need for a scope.

Is it really that important?
In one word, yes! Think of it this way. If you’ve ever replaced an electrical component and it didn’t fix the car, then quite simply there was a test that hadn’t been carried out and the tool of choice in these instances more often than not is an oscilloscope. It’s not important which one you own, just so long as you use one that’s suitable for the job at hand. After all a scope is no more complex to connect to the circuit than a voltmeter and with a little guidance and practice on your part I’ll show you how to reveal faults that can elude technicians that give this tool a wide berth.

Let’s do battle
OK. So I’ve piqued your interest and now I have to make good on my promise. See what you think to this.

The battleground for this adventure is a petrol Vauxhall Insignia and the customer has reported rough running. The MIL light is on and glowing brightly, codes have been pulled to reveal a list as long as my arm and upon lifting the bonnet I’m almost blinded by a very shiny coil pack. The vehicle is quite obviously running rough and deserving of the many fault codes. So where to start?

There are a host of options open to a technician at this point. I decided to see if the rough running was isolated to one cylinder or whether it affected multiple cylinders. I used a serial tool to carry out a cylinder balance test whilst monitoring rpm to assess the contribution of each cylinder. I found that number four was making little contribution to the overall performance and set about finding out why.

Bring out the wand
The magic here is all in the tests. The tests for a routine diagnosis like this are straightforward and quick to apply. At this point I’m looking for diagnostic direction and keen to isolate the fault down to a mechanical, fuelling or ignition issue. A relative compression test bore no fruit; neither did my low down and dirty stress test on the ignition system. The weight of probability at this point was tipping the scales in the direction of a fuelling problem. It’s worth mentioning that whilst I have a love for scopes I won’t use one just for ‘scope sake.’ It needs to be the right tool for the test at hand. It’s very interesting though when the planets align and you see Ohms Law come to life through the eyes of a scope and that’s what happened on this vehicle.

So it looked like our rough running was down to fuelling on one cylinder and I was keen to discover if this was an electrical fault with the injector circuit or something a little more sinister. I used three channels to inspect the injector. CH1 – supply voltage, CH 2 – injector switched ground control circuit and CH 3 for current in the circuit. As soon as I had a stable waveform the problem was there for all to see.

Ohms Law + a scope = The answer
Whilst I could have used less channels to draw out this conclusion each one helps to paint the picture. We can see that channel 3 (see image) on the faulty injector circuit (point B) has a lower overall current level than that of the good injector (point A). This is affecting the reaction time of the pintle, and whilst it doesn’t look like much at first glance when cursors are used it shows a 20% difference. This reduced current was caused by an increase in resistance in the injector voltage supply.

Hey presto, the answer on a plate and all in a timely manner. Not much not to like about that. Further inspection revealed that injector harness had been damaged and the vehicle was restored to good health once repaired. You do have to love it when a plan (a diagnostic plan) comes together.

Cutting your way through the maze
All being well you’ll see the benefits of a little electrical knowledge and how using an oscilloscope can reveal this kind of fault like no other tool can. This type of testing isn’t ‘electrickery’ and IS within the reach of all technicians that have the will to
take the right fork in the road. It’s all very scopetastic!


Related Articles

  • How to create diagnostic superheroes 

    Have you ever had that sinking feeling? You know the one. It’s 08:30 on Monday morning and your best technician is walking towards you with a forlorn look and an envelope in his hand.

  • Hello can we talk? 

    I have been known to say that “Communication is a wonderful thing." Usually the context of this statement is that there has not been good communication and it has resulted in one or both of us missing something or being agitated with one another for not communicating well to the other what was intended.
        
    Probably sounds familiar to many of you, but in the business context it is vitally important that you can communicate with your customers in a way that conveys professionalism and instils both confidence and trust. This is ever-more difficult against a background of increasing vehicle technology and decreasing levels of technical understanding from your customers.
        
    At its most fundamental level, effective communication is the exchange of thoughts, information, ideas, and messages between people. However, it’s not communication unless the transmission is understood. Communication can happen verbally, nonverbally, in writing, and through behaviour as well as by listening and using feedback.
        
    No matter who or what audience you address, the art of communication can be a daunting task – as indeed, it is an art form. The good news is that there are seven steps to clear and effective communication for even the most challenging conversations with customers when trying to explain what is wrong with their vehicle.

    Strategies
    So how can you communicate effectively in this increasing technical environment? One of the best ways is to imagine that you are talking to your grandmother – she may be a little slow to understand, is very non-technical and is going a little deaf!
        
    Keep it simple: Think about how you can make the complicated simple. Do not use highly technical terms or technical abbreviations and explain slowly and clearly. A good example would not be to say: "Sorry, but your EGR valve is blocked by carbon build up on the pintle needle so now it can’t control the correct NOx requirements." Instead, say: "There is a valve on your vehicle’s engine which is required to control exhaust emissions and it is not working correctly." If the customer wants to know more you could always add: "Because it is blocked by carbon build up from the exhaust system, as it recycles exhaust gasses to reduce the exhaust emissions."

    Simples! – as they say.
        
    Does it make sense? Always ask yourself; Does what I’m saying make sense to the person I am speaking to and subsequently does the feedback I’m receiving confirm that they have understood?. When both parties in the conversation are truly able to say they understand or that it is all clear  effective communication has been achieved.
        
    Failure to Communicate – it’s down to you: Remember, as the primary communicator you are 100% responsible for the other person’s understanding of the communication. In other words, if you don’t feel that you are being understood, you have not completed the job of communicating. Don’t try to change what you are trying to communicate, but how you are communicating it.
        
    Stay on Message: Be clear about what ideas you are trying to express or the message you are trying to convey to the other person. What do you most want them to understand?
        
    It takes two: Try to really understand where others are coming from. What are they trying to say? What messages are they trying to get across to you? Pay special attention not just to what they are saying, but to what isn’t being said as well as their body language. Finally, if in doubt – ask!
        
    Sorry, what did you say? Do you really hear what others are saying? To really listen you should stop everything else that you are doing and really listen to what is being said to you. You should then summarise your understanding by being able to feed back to them exactly what you have understood them to have said. Good communication is a two-way thing.
        
    Respect: Recognise that your message is not just about you or what you want. It’s about what’s in it for the listener.  You must mutually understand what is being said and the corresponding implications. After all, they took the time and trouble to hear what you have to say, so it’s equally important to recognise and respect that we each have different perspectives based on our positions, motivations, and needs.
        
    Good communication for technically difficult aspects is a combination of both ‘what you say and how you say it’. In summary, keep it simple, keep it short, be a good listener and be both respectful and empathetic. Above all, avoid being condescending.

    In writing
    When communicating in writing, ensure that you are concise, that you write clearly about the specific point and consider that if you were in the recipient’s position, would they understand what you have written, especially in all the points that they need to know from you. Your audience doesn't want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three. Read what you have written and delete any words that are not needed to clearly explain what you need to say. Less is more, as long as you include everything you need to say.
        
    Effective written communication ensures that the audience has everything they need to be informed about, and if applicable, take action. If your message does include a 'call to action', does your audience clearly know what you need them to do?

    Good example
    As an example of good communication, I use a local independent workshop and Keith, the manager, is the epitome of how it should be done. It goes something like: "Hello Neil, your car is in today for a full service, so we will need it until around 2 o’clock. Can I have the key please? Is this mobile number the best to use so we can call you if I have any questions or to let you know when it is ready and finally is there anything else you would like us to know about that we may need to look at today?" Followed by my reply: "Great Keith, no, nothing else, so many thanks and see you later."
        
    Quick, polite and concise. When I pick my car up, he uses similarly simple and clear language to explain what was done, advice on any other issues they noticed before explaining the invoice, asking if everything is clear or are there any questions before requesting payment. Importantly, Keith never tries to baffle his customers with technical terms and avoids being condescending – important points in the key areas of creating professionalism, confidence and trust in this increasingly technical environment. It is a bit like your grandmother saying that the simple things in life are often the best and this applies to good communication when talking technical.  

    xenconsultancy.com

  • Get to the essentials 

    Marketing can be hard to grasp, even for the most experienced business operator. This made it an ideal topic for Andy Savva to cover as part of his 2019 training course schedule. Andy's one-day Marketing Essentials course provides an overview of what marketing actually is, looks at key approaches and how to apply them to a garage business.
        
    Aftermarket sat in on a sold-out session held in Crawley in February. In front of a packed room, filled with garages owners and staff, Andy dispelled some myths and misconceptions surrounding the discipline: "Marketing is one of the most misunderstood functions found in business. Whatever the reasons for any negative image that marketing may have, it is essential to realise that marketing is vital to ensure the survival and growth of any business. Marketing cannot be ignored and needs to be a part of the culture of any successful organisation.
        
    "Marketing affects everyone. We are all consumers. Most businesses depend on marketing to provide an understanding of the marketplace, to ensure their products and services satisfy the needs of customers, and that they are competing effectively."
        
    Despite running great businesses, Andy has found that garage owners often struggle when it comes to marketing: "Understanding customers and anticipating their requirements is a core theme of effective marketing, yet this is somewhat difficult for garages to fully get to grips with. So too is understanding general market trends and developments that may affect both customers views and the activities of businesses in the aftermarket repair sector. You must also be aware that a business does not have the marketplace to itself. There are always direct competitors, new entrants and indirect challengers.”
        
    Andy added: "Marketing should concern everybody in a business as it sets the context in which sales can take place. Whatever your role, you play a part in setting that context."

    Interaction
    As Andy got into the meat of the marketing matter, he led the delegates through what marketing is, and how they need to approach it and enact effective marketing within their businesses. Even the most experienced business owners and managers can get a little confused when asked to distinguish between marketing, advertising and sales. After asking attendees to pick where they would plant the marketing flag, with a few near misses along the way, Andy went through the specifics:
        
    "Marketing is a systematic approach aimed at bringing buyers and sellers together for the benefit of both. Many people confuse selling and advertising with marketing but they are not the same. Marketing is about promoting goods and services that both satisfy customers and also bring profits to the business.
         
    "Selling is the interaction that takes place on a personal level with potential customers. Marketing on the other hand is aimed at generating those potential customers in the first place. Many people confuse selling and advertising with marketing but they are not the same. Advertising is part of the marketing function, but never the other way around."
        
    For marketing to succeed, there needs to  be a goal and a way of achieving it, which Andy went on to cover: "Any marketing campaign needs to have a clear focus and this is why it is so important to make the right choices. Will the business compete across the entire market, or only certain parts? It is also a good idea to ensure all employees know the strategies being adopted, so that everyone works together to achieve the same goals." Andy then asked a question of the group: "Do you know what your garage business is trying to achieve and how it is trying to achieve it? In most cases the answer is no."
        
    The goal influences the method, and vice versa. From this point, Andy covered the classic four Ps of marketing – product, price, place and promotion – and went from there to the more recent extended marketing mix, incorporating people, process and physical evidence. Beyond this he laid out transactional marketing, which is sales-focused, and relationship marketing, which takes a much broader view including customer service, and quality presentation and results.
        
    Next he took on the thorny issue of branding as part of the marketing strategy, and why a strong brand is so important for recognition, financial value, motivation and loyalty. All of that was just the pre-lunch session. After lunch, Andy went into even greater detail on areas such as the marketing triangle, SMART objectives and SWOT analysis. It's heady stuff, but Andy made it approachable and applicable to the sector.

    Inspirational
    Those in attendance found a lot to take away from the day. Dani Comber from Thrussington Garage in East Goscote, near Leicester said: "I find Andy really inspirational. I think he's brilliant. He can come and work at our garage." Commenting on what she was learning about marketing from the day, Dani said it showed the gap between what they were doing at present, and what they should be doing: "I find it demotivating and motivating at the same time. You want to do everything, you've got the intention to do it, but you've not done it. On the other hand you are motivated because you see what you can do."
        
    Elisa Bramall from Scantec Automotive from Hailsham, East Sussex said: "I have attended several training courses with Andy. I only have good things to say about him of course. His passion being the main thing, and that he says it how it is. No beating around the bush. A lot of his values we stand by as well, i.e use of OE parts, tools and genuine equipment. When you attend his training courses, it aligns with what we want to achieve. With all of his experience, if you think you know it all you certainly don't."
        
    Tina Drayson, Operations Manager at CCM Garage, based in West Sussex and Surrey said: "I have done Andy's financial course before. It is phenomenal. I have learned so much from it. It has certainly changed the way we are doing our business. I am hoping that today with the marketing essentials will give us even more direction going forward."
        
    Terry Roberts, owner at  Witham Motor Company in Witham, Essex said: "I have just become a RAC approved garage in the last few weeks, so I am looking at changing my brand. I am really enjoying it. I am learning a lot and have picked up a lot of things."
        
    Commenting on what he was getting from the course, Billy from  Beacon Hill Garage in Hindhead, Surrey said: "It just hammers home that if your standards slip, and your marketing as well, and you take your eye off the ball, things will go wrong. I will be going back to give a few people a kick up the backside to bring standards back up. "
        
    Brothers Mahesh Vekaria and Pravin Patel own a garage each in Harrow. Mahesh, owner of Cardoc said: "What have I learned from Andy today so far? It has refocused and re-energised my enthusiasm for marketing. We do a fair bit of marketing, but coming today, you see a different angle to it."
        
    Pravin, proprietor at Harrow Service Centre, observed: "Today has been interesting. I have learned a lot. In a sense we already do a bit of marketing, but to understand what it really does mean and the ways we are doing it – is it right or wrong? – is really useful. It is something to implement when we go back to work."
        
    In that the pair are brothers and are based just half a mile apart, Aftermarket was curious as to who would get back and implement new marketing initiatives first. "I would say that I would," said Mahesh. Pravin agreed: "Yes  he would, definitely, having said that, he looks after my marketing for my garage as well. So he has double the work really."

    Information
    Edward Cockhill of Uckfield Motor Services in Uckfield East Sussex observed: "It is quite an eye-opener. I saw marketing as just advertising, whereas it is really the whole perception of my company. There is a lot of cogs that are going to be turning when I get home. "
        
    Peter Bedford of GT One Ltd in Chertsey, Surrey said: "We are an independent Porsche specialist. Our business is in need of a bit of a review in its marketing ideas, and we are looking to freshen it up. I have come along to see another angle of it. Some things I think I know and we have applied. Some I know and we have not applied, so you need a kick up the backside. Some things are brand new. On the whole it is brilliant."
        
    Cieran Larkin from Larkin Automotive in Dublin commented: "It is good to get marketing training from a professional who has been in the garage business as opposed to someone who is dealing with generic marketing. Andy's experience is brilliant in that way."
        
    Nick Robinson from Marchwoods in Folkestone had been to Andy's courses previously and was back for more: "I came to Andy's events last year for garage financial understanding and customer excellence. They were real eye-openers so I have come back for another one. I was badgering him earlier to see what is coming up next. I will be at that one as well!"
        
    Meanwhile, for Edward from Swanley Garage in Swanley, it was his first time: "This is the first one I have been to. It is really good. It is about getting all the information and having the guts to go out and do it. We are all guilty of not doing marketing properly, it is about taking that jump to rebrand yourself or say right we are not doing that any more, or we are not doing cut price work, or we are not going to let the customers bargain with us any more, and seeing where it takes you."

  • Would you like to diagnose more vehicles first time? 

    As we reach March, 2019 is well and truly underway. In fact by the time you read this one third of the year will have whizzed by never to be seen again. Now, I’m not one for New Year’s Resolutions (they’re so last year), but I am the type of chap that likes constant progress when it comes to developing a technician’s career.
        
    There’s so much to be said for small steps taken everyday that on first look appear don’t appear to make a difference, but when gazed back upon over a 12 month period have a staggering affect on your capability to diagnose a vehicle first time, in a timely manner.

    Pitter-patter of tiny feet
    Small steps are all well and good but where do you start? After all, you don’t know what you don’t know, and you’d like to start your journey to diagnostic success off on the right foot. In this instance I’d start with the end in mind and reverse engineer the outcome you desire. It’s a logical process that works, and can be replicated time and time again in your diagnostic routine.
        
    Your ‘end in mind’ in this instance is a vehicle where the fault no longer exists, that won’t appear back across the threshold of your workshop anytime soon. But how do you guarantee that?

    One test to rule them all
    I love nothing more than when the delegates working through our training programs have a technical epiphany. This happens at many points on their path of learning, but none more than with bypass testing.
        
    Bypass testing is step nine in Johnny’s diagnostic circle of love (our 15 step routine), and often the key element in the first time fix. The good news for you is that it doesn’t require mythical creatures to forge their magical powers into an object that only one technician can possess. It’s something that every tech can learn, and become a diagnostic wizard.

    What is bypass testing?
    Quite simply it’s fixing the vehicle before you fix the vehicle. Let me explain.
        
    Wouldn’t it be great if you suspected that a Mass Air Flow sensor was at fault and you could prove that you were right before you fitted a new part, or spoke to the owner of the vehicle. If you could do that then the positive effect it would have on you and the business you work for would blow you away.
        
    Picture this: Your customer has reported that the vehicle is low on power. You’ve diligently questioned them, experienced the problem with them on a road test, and the bought the vehicle into the workshop.
        
    You’ve pulled codes and found none present, followed by taking a look through serial data to hunt for diagnostic clues. It doesn’t take you long to identify that the MAF sensor frequency looks a little low at 1.5 Khz and your fuel trim data is incorrect and making a positive corrections. You’ve seen a bunch of these before and know that 1.85 Khz is a suitable value for this vehicle.
        
    You’re keen to prove that the serial data is leading you in the right direction so confirm the sensor output with your oscilloscope. The oscilloscope frequency mirrors that of the serial tool and your starting to get that warm fuzzy feeling that an you’re onto something.

    Steady the buffs
    You’ve been close to success before though, only to be thwarted in the final moments so you’re keen not to be caught out twice. You know that documenting the reasons that the MAF output could be incorrect is the way to go, and duly make a list of tests required to confirm your theories.

  • part ONE: ‘You owe me!’ 

    As an employer, have you ever found yourself in a situation where you need to make a deduction from an employee’s wages? Are you confident that you know the legal rules in this area? Andrew Rayment, a Partner in the employment department of law firm Walker Morris, has seen this question arise many times with employers who have made the wrong decision.
        
    He offers an example to illustrate the point. A worker has had to take three weeks off work because of a bad back. He is paid statutory sick pay but there is no company sick pay scheme to top this up. He has three young children to support and the employer knew he was going to struggle to make ends meet. The employer ‘topped him up’ to his full wages for the three weeks as a ‘loan’ to help him out. It was agreed, however, that the loan was to be repaid when the worker was in a better situation. The payment was through payroll so the money was received as ‘wages’.
      
     “The problem in this case was that everything was done on trust, so nothing was written down or confirmed in writing,” and as Andrew continued, “a year later the worker resigned after a disagreement. During the interregnum, the period between handing in his notice and his departure, he didn’t repay the money, so it was simply deducted from his final wages payment.” The agreement for the loan was verbal and there was nothing written into his employment contract for the employer to make deductions from his wages.
        
    As if to inflame the situation, the worker subsequently filed a claim in the Employment Tribunal for unlawful deductions from wages and the employer was ordered to repay the sums deducted.
        
    As Andrew says: “It seems unjust, but these were the actual facts of an Employment Tribunal case. But there is a further sting in the tail. Once an Employment Tribunal has ordered an employer to pay back an amount that has been deducted unlawfully the employer cannot attempt to recover that money later in another way, for example by bringing a civil action in the county court.” This rule, he adds, applies even though the sum may have been properly due from the employee to the employer. The fact that the employer has sought to recover it unlawfully effectively extinguishes the previous debt and the employer does not get a second bite at the cherry.

    What does the law say?
    Section 13 of the Employment Rights Act 1996 sets out the provisions that protect workers from unauthorised deductions (known as unlawful deductions) being made from their wages.
      
     “Quite simply,” says Andrew, “the law says it is unlawful for an employer to make a deduction from a worker's wages unless the deduction is required or authorised by statute or a provision in the worker's contract; or the worker has given their prior written consent to the deduction.”
        
    Worse still for employers, he says that unlike breach of contract claims which can only be brought after the employment has ended, employees can bring unlawful deductions claims in the Employment Tribunal while their employment is ongoing.

    Who is protected?
    The law applies to all workers and includes not only an employee, but an individual who has entered into ‘any other contract... to do or perform personally any work or services’, unless the individual is carrying on a ‘profession or business undertaking’ and the other party to the contract is ‘a client or customer’ of that undertaking. In practice, anyone who is on the payroll regardless of whether they are full-time, part-time, casual, direct agency hire or zero-hours will be protected.
        
    Andrew cautions employers that following a raft of recent cases on worker status many self-employed contractors may be deemed in law to be workers regardless of the parties’ intentions or the contractual paperwork.
        
    In essence, workers are protected from having deductions made from their wages except in certain specific circumstances. Says Andrew: “The law puts the onus firmly on employers to obtain authorisation from the worker to any deductions before they are made. The overriding aim is to protect staff from unscrupulous employers, but employers also need to protect themselves against falling victim to the strict legal rules.”



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