How can you test what you can't see?

John Batten shows how you can never be complacent about skills, as you always need to be ready for what might come through the door

By John Batten | Published:  30 April, 2018

Life as a business owner can often be as challenging as it is rewarding, in fact overcoming these challenges is half of the reward for many, especially when it comes to accurately diagnosing the undiagnosable.
    
Many businesses build a reputation locally on the fact they’re able to find faults that others can’t. This acts as a point of differentiation, which is great. Developing this reputation in your locale can pays dividends, as customers become less price focused when they know why you’re different to your competition.
    
What a great place to be. Your customers love you because you’re effective in your diagnosis and you get paid well for doing this. What’s not to like about that? Not a lot!

Sounds great but…  
 
If it were that easy, everyone would be doing it. Easy? Definitely not, but then anything worth achieving never is. Here’s the deal though – It’s not difficult either, although it does take some deliberate thought on the part of the business owner. The kind of technical success that’s required for a reputation like this is within the grasp of all garage owners; It just takes the commitment to change and a willingness to plan for the change required.

The owner is clearly responsible for the health and continuing success of their business, but with so much demand on their time creating a technical team to differentiate your business from your competition is not always at the forefront of their mind.

The best time to plant a tree…
Was 20 years ago. The second best time is now. As proverbs go that one hits the mark when it comes to developing anyone within your business. The question is, where to start?
    
Skills analysis is a good a place as any. What skills do your technical team currently possess? Do you have a team of technical superheroes today and just need to turn on the marketing tap to increase your bottom line numbers? Or do you have a hero in the making and need to take a look at the training required before you buy them a cape? If you’ve a hero in the making then that’s great! There’s nothing more satisfying for a technician and the business owner when they embark together on a symbiotic journey of development. The technician will feel invested in and the owner will have a stronger team and be able to promote their newfound skills increasing efficiency and profit. A win-win for everyone!
    
So you’ve got your training plan in place and the technical skills of your team are moving in the right direction. Time to put your feet back up on the desk? Not quite. Continued success means that not only do you need to be able to efficiently repair what’s in your workshop today, but see what’s coming over the hill and ensure you have the skills and equipment for tomorrows car park.

I’m sure you’ve heard diesel fuel being called into question as a long term option for powering our vehicles and that we’ll all be driving dodgems (or some other electric vehicle) as the future of motoring. But is there an alternative that has both a foot in today and an eye on tomorrow? Oh yes, I’d almost forgotten… It’s petrol. More specifically gasoline direct injection (GDi).

The ‘new old’ technology
GDi has been with us for some time and in reasonable quantities since the early noughties. This means there are bucket loads of these vehicles in your workshops daily. Not only that, but manufacturers are looking at the benefits of taking rail pressure in excess of 500 bar and how this may help with emission reduction. What does this mean for you? Well. If your not sure how to effectively diagnose these vehicles then there’s no better time to learn. Plus it’s probably here for some time to come. With that in mind it shouldn’t come as a surprise that my technical article this month is a 2L GDi Audi A3.

No time to hesitate
The customer complaint on this vehicle was a rough idle and hesitant pick up on light throttle. Following my own mantra, I started Johnny’s 15-step diagnostic process with a thorough questioning of the client whilst experiencing the issue with them. It was indeed ‘stumbly’ (believe it or not that is a technical term – in my world anyway) and I followed this with a look at fault codes and inspected serial data. There was nothing to write home about here, neither was there with the tests for mechanical integrity or ignition diagnosis. So where does that leave us? Just fuelling.

Under pressure
With just fuelling left as the option for our hesitation low and high-pressure systems were evaluated and again no fault found, that just left injection quality or quantity.
    
GDi Injectors differ from manifold injectors not only in their position (GDi injecting straight into the cylinder) but also in their electrical characteristics. The high current driver (10 Amps, see figure 1) enables fast multiple injections not dissimilar to that of solenoid diesel injectors. All injectors were inspected electrically and again no fault found. We were fast running out of test options for fuelling... What to do?

How can you test what you can’t see?
We had seen similar issues before and figured I’d try and identify a dribbly injector (there I go getting all technical again) prior to its removal from the cylinder. We ran the engine and stopped it, isolated the breather system and removed a spark plug, then tested for HCs in each cylinder waiting for a drip and a rise in HCs. What did we find? Nada, Zilch, Nothing! There was nothing for it the injectors would have to come out and be tested.    
    
It just so happens were fortunate enough to have a Carbon Zapp test bench in the training center. This gives us the capability to test GDi injectors at high pressure. It’s a cool piece of tech that runs the injector through an automated test plan, giving a pass/fail report on the injection characteristics. After testing each injector I was delighted to find one
of these was defective and the fault found.
    
If you’d like to see the injector being bench tested then head over to www.autoiq.co.uk/blog where you can watch a video. So there we go another car fixed, and I’m sure this happens in your workshop on a daily basis. But here’s a question for you: Do you have a program of technical development to help your team work efficiently? And can you differentiate your business from those around you? If it’s a yes to both then brilliant, you’re set for the future! If not then give me a call at Auto iQ on 01604 328500 and I’ll be only too pleased to help your business develop a plan for your continued success.




Related Articles

  • High voltage – Big opportunity: Part 1 

    Electric vehicle technology means both opportunity for garages and technicians but also necessitates investment, especially in technicians and equipment as businesses have a ‘duty of care’ to look after the technician while servicing and repairing electric vehicles.
        
    Who here is old enough to remember when the supposedly deadly airbag was introduced on mainstream production vehicles during the 1990s? Nearly everyone around during this era was nervous of the technology and the highly dangerous components, such as the airbag deployment device, that were encountered by technicians. Today airbag technology is encountered by the workshop technician on a daily basis, and every modern vehicle has some form of supplementary restraint system (SRS) fitted to the vehicle. The dangers first feared by the technician are now treated as part of the daily routine. It will probably be a similar scenario as more and more high voltage electric vehicles are seen both on the road and in vehicle workshops for service and repair around the UK.
        
    Treat the vehicle technology with care, educate the technician, gain confidence with the technology and the fear typically reduces. Most vehicles (hybrid and pure electric) fitted with this high voltage technology are inherently safe, reliable and safe to work on providing a few rules are adhered to such as ‘don’t stick metal objects in places where high voltage exists.’
        
    Many of the vehicle manufacturers will highlight the potential dangers by placing various warning signs on the hazardous components that have a risk of electrocution, corrosive, fire and magnetism.

    Training
    Many of the training providers around the UK are now providing training courses on the technology, most will provide an industry recognised qualification or certification by a recognised awarding organisation such ABC Awards, City & Guilds or The Institute of the Motor Industry (IMI). The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has developed guidelines for the recovery, repair, and maintenance of these vehicles both for independent workshops and franchised dealership networks which is available to view at http://www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/topics/electric-hybrid.htm
        
    The HSE website can also provide some useful information that can supplement the information provided on specific High Voltage Vehicle training/qualification courses. The workshop should have the applicable policies in place and ensure that the necessary risk assessment procedures are in place to prevent injuries and fatalities. They should also inform the applicable insurance organisation(s) that they are working on these types of vehicles.
        
    It should be noted as with all the present vehicle technology that the vehicle’s control unit will closely monitor the high voltage system and in nearly all cases of a fault being detected, the vehicle system will store an applicable diagnostic trouble code (DTC) and default to a safe running mode or even shut the high voltage system down, disabling the vehicle. The control unit will also illuminate a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) to indicate the fault to the driver of the vehicle.

    Correct
    It is therefore imperative that the vehicle workshop has the correct test equipment to be able to access the vehicle systems necessary to retrieve the information to correctly repair the vehicle. Only with dedicated equipment will a workshop be able to facilitate the diagnosis and repair of the vehicle. This also includes the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE) and necessary dedicated hand tools such as a multimeter, insulation tester, insulated tools and the necessary workshop equipment to both repair the vehicle and warn individuals of the potential risk to the exposure of electrocution through high voltage vehicles (i.e. insulated safety equipment, signs and barriers).
        
    Hybrid vehicles have been fitted with high voltage batteries since the late 1990s such as the Honda Insight/Accord or the Toyota Prius (now in its fourth generation). The high voltage technology has been seen for many years, its only over the last few years that we have seen that technology being used more widely on vehicles that our customers drive on a daily basis.

    Safety steps
    To enable a technician to disable the high voltage system to be able to work near/on the high voltage components they should always follow the vehicle manufacturers repair instructions however this can also be seen as ‘seven steps’ to disable the vehicle’s high voltage system. Step 1 to Step 3 are indicated in this article with the remainder in the next article.

    Step 1. Ensure others are aware of the potential high voltage/risk: The technician should ensure that others in their workplace are aware of the potential dangers of a vehicle with high voltage in the workshop. The technician has a duty of care to highlight the potential risks and hazards. The technician should perform this task by highlighting to others of the potential danger, indicating that the vehicles’ high voltage system is either ‘active’ or disabled. This can be achieved by applying warning signs on the vehicle along with their name and contact details such as a mobile phone number. The technician should walk around the vehicle to check to ensure there is no obvious damage, liquids or other risks that could harm others. The technician should at the same time begin/follow a risk assessment identifies the potential hazards (HSE indicate that a business that employs five staff and above needs this to be documented). The technician should place additional signs and barriers to enable the vehicle is cordoned off and ensure that others are protected as far as possible from the risk.

    Step 2. Switch off the ignition switch/remove the key from the vehicle (3-5 metres away): Hybrid vehicles typically use a vehicle security system that no longer requires the vehicles key (or key fob) to be inserted into a lock assembly to switch the ‘ignition on’ or make the vehicle ready to drive. Many vehicles now have keyless technology so as long as the key is in the vicinity of the vehicle the vehicle ‘could’ become alive. A simple solution is to remove the key (or key fob) at least three metres from the vehicle so that the vehicle does not recognise the key and there is no fear on the vehicle energy unit (engine or high voltage battery system) becoming live. As an example it has been seen that a technician drains the engine oil on a vehicle during a service and the engine starts, the consequences of such an action can be enormous. This scenario could also occur if the vehicle is fitted with a Stop/Start system that is active.

    Step 3. Disconnect the low voltage battery:  Vehicles, at present, will still have a low voltage (12 volt) ancillary battery to operate conventional systems such as driver and passenger control systems i.e. instruments, comfort and audio. The low voltage system will also typically control and monitor the high voltage system. Therefore, if the low voltage battery were to become discharged then the vehicle will display the signs of a flat battery and the technician will have to connect their ‘battery booster’ to the low voltage battery in order to wake up the high voltage system.
        
    On NO account should the technician access the high voltage battery to connect any booster/charging equipment. The low voltage battery is typically re-charged with a component called the DC to DC converter. This is normally located near to the invertor/electric motor. Note that a battery (low or high voltage) can only store direct current (DC) and to propel the vehicle requires this DC to be inverted into AC to turn the electric motor through a component referred to as the ‘inverter.’ Late vehicles could be seen as no longer fitted with a low voltage battery, vehicle manufacturers are looking to increase the driving range of the vehicle through weight reduction. A low voltage battery typically weighs around 12Kg. The lithium battery will provide both the low
    voltage and the high voltage energy required to energise the vehicle.
        Voltages present in hybrid and electric are significantly higher (up to 650 Volts-DC)) than those used in other vehicles (12/24 Volts DC) we commonly see on the road network. In dry conditions, accidental contact with parts that are live at voltages above 50 Volts DC can be fatal. If wet conditions are encountered, then this voltage can become significantly reduced. These vehicles remain inherently safe but as vehicle workshops can be high risk the workshop should always have a trained/qualified first aid person on site. High voltage will also apply to the various equipment that has been used for many years in this environment.
        
    The high voltage output is controlled by the low voltage system with the use of ‘contactors’ or large relays. These relays can be seen as large mechanical switches and due to the large currents, that pass through the contacts can be prone to faults such as welding closed. The vehicle low voltage system will typically check the function of these relays during the start-up procedure and if a fault is detected the system will normally produce a DTC applicable to the fault.

    Further information
    Further information on high voltage vehicle components and their operation will be contained in the next of the articles in this series, along with the next steps in the disconnection process. The reading of these articles will increase a technician’s knowledge of high voltage and the various vehicle systems, but a technician should always ensure that they have the ability to work on these vehicle types competently prior to work commencing.

  • Electric future shock  

    The need to adapt to changing vehicle technology is one of the main challenges of our time in the sector. Increasing connectivity and a vastly more complicated conventional vehicle provide a whole raft of obstacles on their own, before you even get to the rise of electric vehicles and hybrids.

    Add to that a more uncertain legislative environment resulting from rules not quite keeping up with the technology coming in, and you’ve got yourself a whole host of issues that the entire industry needs to stay on top of if it is going to continue to offer a sterling service to customers.

    Let’s look at electric vehicles. For Tom Harrison Lord from Fox Agency, the b2b marketing company specialising in the automotive sector,  Automechanika Birmingham offered a troubling glimpse into the future:  “This summer’s Automechanika Birmingham was entertaining and enjoyable as ever, but it also exemplified a worrying trend in the motor industry today. With the advancement of electric vehicles, there are going to be some rapid and stark changes ahead. The automotive aftermarket, however, seems to be burying its head in the sand.”


    Access
    The key, as it has been in the past, is access. In this case, the right to be able to repair vehicles. Think that’s all sorted? Perhaps not:  “The rise of the electric cars and vehicles is something that could hit the automotive aftermarket hard – in particular, independent garages.

    “Many, if not all, electric vehicles invalidate their manufacturer warranty if essential work is carried out on the electrical systems by someone other than the main dealer. What’s more, many cars with batteries, such as the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, have warranties on the electrical components lasting up to ten years.

    “Having no choice but to use the main dealer for a full decade shows just why independent workshops will have fewer vehicles coming through the doors in the years ahead.”

  • Ben’s 'Hats on 4 Mental Health Day' fundraiser returns  

    This year's Hats on 4 Mental Health Day, organised by Ben is taking place on 13 October, during the week of World Mental Health Day.

  • Tools to survive and thrive 

    My life as a business owner, trainer and technician is an interesting one. I was recently spending some time with a client after a course just shooting the breeze. You know the kind of thing, a cuppa, a cake and an hour just putting the world
    to rights.
        
    Part way through our conversation Matt proclaimed that I must be “living the dream!” This made me stop and think (something I’ve been told not to do by my wife) about how I am indeed very fortunate to have a career doing something I truly love.

    Wading through treacle
    Spending my days with like-minded business owners and technicians, helping them drive their careers and businesses forward. What’s not to like about that? Not much, but has my work life always been like skipping through meadow on a sunny day?
        
    Quite frankly… No! Don’t get me wrong –  I’m a glass half full sort of chap and regardless of the task ahead I’ll give it my best and persevere until success emerges. However, on many occasions in my diagnostic career it was just like wading through treacle, and therein lies my point. To get to a place where you’re ‘living the dream’ you need wellies! Show me a successful technician and I’ll show you someone who’s great at wading. They’ve just waded long enough to build a versatile skill set along
    the way.

    The recipe for success
    As with most things in life there are essential ingredients. With the right ingredients you’ll successfully avoid the diagnostic treacle swamp and swap this for a faster and more enjoyable repair experience.
        
    “What’s this recipe?” I hear you cry. It has six elements that when bought together produce truly remarkable results. They are;

  • T.Q.I. or T.Q. WHY?  

    Here is an extract from the sixth edition of the Testing Guide:
    “E3 Ongoing Requirements: Testers should access their Test Quality Information (TQI) Reports via the MOT Testing Service (MTS), to compare their personal performance with the national averages. This is relevant to the tester as it is an ongoing requirement of authorisation.”
        
    Let’s explore what the DVSA want to achieve. The DVSA need to be accountable to Government for ensuring the MOT Scheme is well run and managed. They themselves cannot be in all places at all times, so by running a TQI comparison they are able to gain a structured insight on the performance of each and every MOT tester. They can then compare each individual MOT tester’s results against the national average and can use this system to identify any anomalies.  In essence, the DVSA need this information to prove they are managing the scheme and to identify where any weaknesses might be found.

    Insider information
    How can the DVSA use the information? As MOT testing stations we previously had this data available via an earlier version of the VTS software along with a scoring system. Now just because we don’t see the scoring system please do not think for one moment that the DVSA cannot see your scores.
        
    When a DVSA Vehicle Examiner (VE) is sat down the road from your garage, he is able to look at the TQI of each tester and arrive at your reception area armed with what could be termed ‘insider information’, although the information that the DVSA can see is the same information you can access via your TQI.
        
    Worse still if your TQI percentages are consistently too far from the national  average, a computer at the DVSA could alert your local DVSA office and create the need for a Vehicle Examiner to visit your garage unannounced.

    Review and manage  
    The DVSA have given us all the ability to be armed against any weaknesses in our TQI and via the new directive are actually forcing us to review and manage our own TQI. Let’s not forget the DVSA need to have a well-run scheme, so by forcing us to review and manage the TQI they are keeping themselves in good shape too.
        How often should you check your TQI? Let’s make this simple you should check it every month. What should you do with your TQI? Each tester (not your employer or AE) should check their own TQI each month. Once you have your TQI report, you should check your own averages against the national averages. If all of your TQI is close to the national average then you have very little to be concerned about, and the DVSA will also have no concerns here.
        Importantly, in order to remain compliant you should have a record of checking your TQI and be able to produce that record to the DVSA on demand. If you have checked, all is good, and you have documented this check, then well done.
        What if your TQI is bad? Two things can happen here:
    1. You are a BAD tester and you probably get found out, or...

    2. You are a GOOD tester with bad TQI who needs to put things right.

    The DVSA want us all to work to a quality management scheme (QMS). The DVSA want to see that we all manage our VTS correctly. They expect us to do this by continually checking and measuring ourselves against a set of standards. Now the DVSA are not silly and they know that there will be shortcomings and things that go wrong. In fact, they expect just that, and even encourage it. What the DVSA want is for all of our checking to be recorded, then they want us to find things that are wrong and record them. More importantly they want us to put those things right and record when they have been corrected.
        
    Returning to our bad TQI, it is safe to say that the DVSA will want to know that we have identified the issue and recorded that problem, then we need to supply a solution and document that solutions outcome.
        
    Finding a valid reason for your TQI differences is often down to unique circumstances, some real-world examples that come to mind are:

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